Accessing and recording landline communications can be accomplished, provided the investigator obtains consent from the account holder. In situations without this permission, recording instruments can be situated close to the landline, allowing at least one side of the dialogue to be captured. Conversely, the intricacies of modern-day smartphones render them virtually impervious to eavesdropping or ‘bugging’. Their reliance on sophisticated digital encryption algorithms shields them effectively – to the point where even elite agencies such as GCHQ would need explicit ministerial approval to attempt any interception. Given that smartphones are the predominant communication tools for many, it’s safe to conclude that intercepting their calls isn’t feasible. Consequently, a reputable investigator would eschew proposing this approach within any investigative strategy.